Recent History of Sudan
SINCE GENERAL OMAR AL BASHIR ASSUMED THE LEADERSHIP OF SUDAN
UPON A COUP D’ÉTAT IN 1989, THE country has experienced an unprecedented
duration of economic progress, but has yet to find its bearings politically. However,
Sudan’s economic promise has prompted great international concern about its
political unrest and much attention is being given by the United Nations, European
Union, United States of America, Arab League, and African Union to the stabilization
of the country’s political situation. On January 9, 2005, after two and a half years of
negotiations to finally resolve the conflict between the Northern and Southernregions
of the country that has troubled it since independence in 1956, a Comprehensive Peace
Agreement (CPA) was signed in Kenya. But, unfortunately, a major crisis has erupted
in the far Western region of Darfur, which has a humanitarian dimension that is currently
the focal point of international attention to Sudan.
In accordance with the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, Dr. John Garang de Mabior,
Chairman of the Sudan People’s Liberation Army that had waged a twenty-year guerrilla
campaign against Khartoum, spanning four successive government, returned to Khartoum,
receiving a hero’s welcome, on July 8, 2005.
The following day, he was sworn in as First Vice President of the Republic and President of
autonomous South Sudan. At the welcoming ceremony, President Al Bashir referred to Dr.
Garang as a brother and vowed that the era of wars in Sudan was gone forever. A few days
earlier, a Declaration of Principles for further negotiations was signed in Abuja with the
leading guerrilla movement in Darfur, Sudan Liberation Movement, and the United Nations
promised to help in negotiations with Eastern Front guerrillas near the border with Eritrea.